The Foundations of the West

The following text was prepared in large part owing to endless demands for my notes.  The text constitutes a narrative history of the west from the Bronze Age to the seventeenth century.  Click on the icon to find the appropriate chapter.



  Chapter 1:  Civilization and Western Antiquity

  Chapter 2:  Imperial Rome

  Chapter 3:  The Rise of Christianity

  Chapter 4:  The Later Roman Empire

  Chapter 5:  The Byzantine and Islamic Commonwealths

  Chapter 6:  Northern Europe in the Early Middle Ages

  Chapter 7:  The High Middle Ages

  Chapter 8:  The Crusades

  Chapter 9: The Late Middles Ages 

  Chapter 10:  The Renaissance

  Chapter 11:  The Reformation

 Chapter 12:  The Crisis of the Seventeenth Century

  Notes to the Text


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